Quote of the Day

I don't need time – I need a deadline.

— Duke Ellington, describing how he is motivated to get something done. I must admit that I need deadlines for writing, otherwise I would never get anything written.

## Introduction

XKCD is a great comic strip by Randall Munroe that takes a quirky look at the world of science. Randall recently posted a set of questions for a substitute teacher to pose to a math class that were interesting and attracted the attention of some problem-solving enthusiasts.

I thought I would jump into the fray by solving the problem using Mathcad and also taking my first dive into Python.

## Background

While this is a simple problem, it is interesting to see how different people approach it. Here are two other solutions that I recommend you read:

- Jon Peltier's Excel Solution
Jon is a world-class Excel expert (e.g. MVP) with a real gift for Excel charting. He attacks the problem using a standard spreadsheet approach and a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) approach.

- Rhett Allain's Python Solution
Rhett wrote a Python-based solution that I used as the basis for my first Python program. I modified his routine to use trapezoidal integration instead of Euler, and I implemented a different scheme for the clipping the velocities.

## Analysis

### Mathcad Solution

Figure 2 shows how I used Mathcad to solve the substitute teacher problem.

Figure 3 shows my graphical view of the solution.

### Python Solution

I have never written a Python program before and this seemed like a great opportunity to learn. When I looked at Rhett's program, it reminded me a simplified form of Java – my usual programming language choice. So I quick ran through the Python course on Code Academy and loaded Python onto my Eclipse install.

Figure 4 shows my Python routine, which gave me the same results as Mathcad. Python seems a lot less wordy than Java – what were the Java folks thinking?

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt #!/usr/bin/env python """ Abstract: This module iteratively solves the xkcd substitute teacher problem: The velociraptor spots you 40 meters away and attacks, accelerating at 4 m/s^2 up to its top speed of 25 m/s. When it spots you, you begin to flee, quickly reaching your top speed of 6 m/s. How far can you get before you are devoured. My intent here is to solve the problem with a simple Python program. My approach here is a slightly modified version of Rhett Allain's Python code at http://www.wired.com/2015/10/heres-solve-xkcd-velociraptor-problem-code/ My modifications are simple. 1. I used trapezoidal rule rather than Euler method for the ODE solution. 2. I decided to store the intermediate results in lists. 3. Implemented the clipped velocities using minimum function. Rhett assumes that a prey will accelerate at 3 m/s^2 on their way to a top speed of 6 m/s, so I will too. """ # Initial Conditions xv=-40 #this is the initial location of velociraptor xp=0 #location of the prey av=4 #acceleration of velociraptor ap=3 #accel of prey vvmax=25 #maximum velocity of the velociraptor vpmax=6 #max velocity of prey vp=0 #starting velocity of prey vv=0 #starting velocity of velociraptor t=0 #starting time dt=0.0001 #time step tlist=[] #Store all time values computed xpreylist=[] #Store all prey positions xvelociraptorlist=[] #Store all raptor positions #this is the loop. It runs until the velociraptor #catches up to the prey while xv<=xp:#first check if the prey is at max v #calc new prey velocity after time interval vp0=vp vp=min(vp+ap*dt,vpmax) #calc new velociraptor velocity vv0=vv vv=min(vv+av*dt,vvmax) #calc new positions xp=xp+(vp+vp0)*0.5*dt #Trapezoidal integration xpreylist.insert(0,xp) xv=xv+(vv+vv0)*0.5*dt #Trapezoidal integration xvelociraptorlist.insert(0,xv) tlist.insert(0,t) #update time t=t+dt print 'Prey Position @ intercept time: {0:4}'.format(xp) print 'Intercept Time (s): {0:4}'.format(t) # Plot the prey and velociraptor positions plt.plot(tlist,xpreylist) plt.plot(tlist,xvelociraptorlist) plt.ylabel('Position (m)') plt.xlabel('Time (s)') plt.suptitle('Velociraptor Vs Prey Position', fontsize=20) plt.show()

Figure 4: My Python Solution for the Substitute Teacher Problem.

#### Python Graphic Output

Figure 5 shows the output from my Python program. The results are the same as given by Mathcad.

## Conclusion

This problem nicely illustrates how different tools can be used to solve a problem. In my case, I tend to use computer-algebra systems, like Mathcad and Mathematica, to experiment with different approaches to solve a problem. I only commit to software when I need more speed or the ability to handle large scale.

I may be missing something: In Figure 3, why doesn't the raptor's speed max out at 25 m/s?

Simple: the raptor doesn't need to reach his top speed to catch such slow prey. He'll reach his top speed at t= 6.25. He'll have grabbed lunch before then.