Quote of the Day
How are the children?
— Masai warrior greeting, intended to ensure that the warriors always keep their number one priority in mind.
I was reading a blog post on Gizmodo that did a bit of math to determine why a pipe breaks the way it does when the water inside freezes. As I looked at the post, I realized the math was the same as would be used to determine the hull thickness for a submarine rated to operate within a specified depth range. To verify my realization, I decided to do a bit of historical math and apply the formula to figuring out the hull thickness for a famous type of World War 2 submarines, the Balao Class Fleet Submarine (Figure 1).
The calculations are shown in Figure 2. The calculations agree with the pressure hull thickness actually used on this submarine. I have found a number of discussions on the Balao's operating depth (example). Richard O'Kane operated USS Tang down to 600 feet during sea trials. Apparently, the crews had great confidence in the construction of the Balao class.